An analysis of justice
Now let us quickly see how Plato applies this theory of justice to a particular social issue, before briefly considering the theory critically. The sense of injustice: Social psychological perspectives. Aquinas applies this theory of justice to many social problems.
If, it is deprived of its peculiar virtue, it cannot possibly do its work well.
Google Scholar Mill, J. We can easily anticipate how readily Sophists would apply such relativism and skepticism to justice.
Plato theory of justice pdf
For Plato, this is the way to achieve the fulfillment of a well-ordered soul. Thus, weaving a web between the human organism and the social organism, Plato asserts that functional specialization demands from every social class to specialize itself in the station of life allotted to it. In his most famous Chapter XIII, Hobbes paints a dramatic and disturbing portrait of what human life would be like in a state of nature—that is, beyond the conventional order of civil society. Thus, for Thrasymachus justice means personal interest of the ruling group in any state or we can further define it as "another's good". Infield New York: Harper Torchbooks. The second law of nature maintains that, in order to achieve peace with others, we must be willing to give up our right to harm them, so long as they agree to reciprocate by renouncing their right to harm us. Plato says that justice is not mere strength, but it is a harmonious strength.
But, also, Augustine should have an advantage over the ancient Greeks in arriving at a theory of justice based on universal equality on account of the Christian doctrine not to mention because of the influences of Cicero, the Stoics, and Plotinus that all humans are equally children of God.
Early Modernity Although only half as much time elapses between Aquinas and Hobbes as did between Augustine and Aquinas, from the perspective of intellectual history, the period of modernism represents a staggering sea-change. Plato saw in justice the only remedy of saving Athens from decay and ruin, for nothing agitated him in contemporary affairs more than amateurishness, needlesomeness and political selfishness which was rampant in Athens of his day in particular and in the entire Greek world in general.
Surely he is wrong about all women and non-Greeks, as such, being essentially inferior to Greek males in relevant ways, for cultural history has demonstrated that, when given opportunities, women and non-Greeks have shown themselves to be significantly equal.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 95— Plato realises that all theories propounded by Cephalus, Thrasymachus and Glaucon, contained one common element. When all the three agree that among them the reason alone should rule, there is justice within the individual.
Google Scholar Frankena, W. But, then, oligarchy is also intrinsically unjust insofar as it involves treating equals as unequal because of some contingent disparity, of birth, wealth, etc.
Criticism of plato theory of justice
New directions in equity research. In a remarkably progressive passage in Book V of his Republic, Plato argues for equal opportunity for women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, — The negative part of it—his critique of inadequate views of justice—is a masterful series of arguments against attempts to reduce justice to a couple of simplistic rules Cephalus , to treating people merely in accord with how we feel about them Polemarchus , and to the power-politics mentality of exploiting them for our own selfish purposes Thrasymachus. Let us now see how Mill applies his utilitarian theory to three problems of justice that are still timely today. Cohen Eds. As justice is both a moral and a political virtue, helping to prescribe both a good character and right conduct, the question of how such obligations arise is crucial. But in addition to its being insufficiently justified, this theory of justice would justify too much. Journal of Social Issues, 31, 21— Therefore, the reason and spirit have to control these appetites which are likely to grow on the bodily pleasures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, — The amateur meddlesomeness and excessive individualism became main targets of Plato's attack. Google Scholar Walster, E. The ten commandments of the Old Testament Exodus are prescriptions regarding how the righteous are to relate to God as well as to one another.
based on 95 review