An analysis of the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the united states

During the s, this viewpoint of teenage pregnancies changed markedly.

Teenage pregnancy articles 2018

Study: maternal age and birth outcome The first study was based on a data set of 10, singleton term births 39—41st gestational weeks which took place at the largest birth clinic in Austria, the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Vienna between and Medical and social care during pregnancy improved pregnancy outcome markedly. Girls married during adolescence and gave birth during their second decade of life. States that have high proportions of teenagers dropping out of school and of young women not graduating from high school tend to have high pregnancy rates and birth rates and a somewhat lower proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. The results of this study should be cautiously interpreted as some limitations are imposed. Additionally, it is estimated that some three million teenage girls undergo unsafe abortions, which may result in consecutive reproductive problems or even death [ 1 ]. In case of pregnancy girls older than 14, they may decide for abortion without approval by their parents. They get sex education there but also access to contraceptives. Studies have also shown the distribution of unwanted and wanted adolescent pregnancy to correspond with differences in physical environment, population characteristics and cultural norms [ 16 ]. This marks a steep decline, especially since , when the pregnancy rate among teens peaked at Furthermore, sexual activity of girls and young women was mainly related to marriage until the second half of the twentieth century [ 9 ].

Usually, the first ovulation takes place after the first menstrual bleeding, the menarche [ 8 ]. Teenage mother receives medical care during pregnancy, birth, and after birth free of charge. The mother-child passport was introduced, abortion became legal, and sex educations in public schools became obligatory.

An analysis of the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the united states

Developed countries with the lowest rates of teenage motherhood are characterized by advanced school-based sex education but also broad availability of contraceptives including postcoital emergency contraception, and a liberal abortion law [ 57 — 59 ]. States that have high proportions of teenagers dropping out of school and of young women not graduating from high school tend to have high pregnancy rates and birth rates and a somewhat lower proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion. The higher the teacher-student ratio, the lower the adolescent birthrate and the more likely the pregnant teenager is to have an abortion. Welfare payments to teenage mothers are negatively associated with both black and white teenage birthrates, and higher maximum payments are associated with relatively high abortion levels. Furthermore, a mean age of menarche of 13 years is a quite recent phenomenon. This moderating effect may operate at a greater level for adolescent girls compared to adult women. While this study did not look closely at the relationship between intimate partner violence and pregnancy intention, the relationship between adolescent pregnancies and intimate partner violence has been widely documented in the literature [ 23 — 27 ]. Beside school-based sex education programs, special outpatient departments for adolescents such as the so-called first love outpatient department in Vienna were implemented. Unfortunately, sex education is lacking in many countries and consequently young girls are not aware about physiological basis of reproduction and contraceptives. What remains unknown is the extent to which these poor outcomes result from teenage pregnancies or from per se social disadvantages which affect the teenage mother already before pregnancy. Group 3 contained mothers aged between 20 and 29 years, group 4 comprised women aging between 30 and 39 years, and group 5 comprised women aging 40 years and above. Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy related characteristics considered in the analysis included cigarette smoking, alcohol use and drug use prior to pregnancy.

Teenage birth rate varies greatly between countries. Figure 1.

Causes of teenage pregnancy

In the s, the secular trend in menarcheal age had slowed down or ended in many European countries and the United States [ 14 ]. They get sex education there but also access to contraceptives. Pregnancies, births and abortions among adolescents and young women in the United States, National and state trends by age, race and ethnicity. Email U. Open Peer Review reports Background Adolescent or teenage pregnancies have been documented to have adverse effects for both the mother and the child. The increased desire for intended pregnancy among older teens compared to younger teens suggests recognition of reduced risks with increased age. The mean age at first birth between and

This is mainly due to the fact that childbearing among teenagers is socially desired in some traditional societies and in developing countries [ 22 ]. Evidence from U.

teenage pregnancy statistics worldwide 2018

This unintended pregnancy rate is higher than the total teenage pregnancy rate in all of the four countries.

Some even require the pregnant and parenting teens to attend parenting classes or practicum classes. The mean age at first birth between and

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Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing