Taken together, these developments brought technology to its modern highly efficient level of performance. Italy was dominated by city-statesmany of which were nominally part of the Holy Roman Empireand were ruled by wealthy aristocrats like the Medicisor in some cases, by the pope.
A Norton Critical Reader Cardwell. Edison and many others. The first is that these views are, in a sense, a luxury enjoyed only by advanced societies, which have benefited from modern technology.
By emphasizing a practical role for science in this way, Bacon implied a harmonization of science and technology, and he made his intention explicit by urging scientists to study the methods of craftsmen and urging craftsmen to learn more science.
In England, Sir Isaac Newton pioneered the science of physics. They were famed for their martial spirit and Christian piety.Probably the first clock in Europe was installed in a Milan church in , hinting at the dawning mechanical age. From , he wrote: "every branch of life — action, philosophy, organisation, technology [experienced an] extraordinary outpouring of energy, an intensification of existence". For the first time, mankind, due to the global spread of Western values and institutions centuries , was really integrated into the framework of the world-embracing system of connections. The Portuguese immediately looked to expand outward sending expeditions to explore the coasts of Africa and engage in trade with the mostly Muslim powers on the Indian Ocean , making Portugal wealthy. Aristotle made the point neatly: As man is the best of the animals when perfected, so he is the worst when separated from law and justice. Around 20 million people — up to a third of Europe's population — died from the plague before it receded. Advances in medicine and understanding of the human anatomy also increased in this time. Scientific-technical revolution became a support vector of historical dynamics. It provided a model that was applied rigorously by Henry Ford in his automobile assembly plant and that was followed by every modern mass-production process. Countries and large economic entities gain the possibility to predict and plan the creation of such equipment and technology, which will ensure the implementation of strategic plans in the field of economic development and solving social problems. The consequences of the victory of such ideas would be enormous. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , the father of microbiology, cell biology and bacteriology.