How paper are made
How is paper made? To make paper from trees, the raw wood must first be turned into " pulp.
Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A. The mold and deckle are dipped into the half stuff and gently agitated so an even coating forms on top, with most of the water and some of the pulp draining through.
Paper and papermaking by Chris Woodford. What is paper?
Liliaceae Press, Most paper today is produced from wood pulp. It's also possible to make paper from a variety of other types of plant fibers, such as cotton, flax, bamboo, and hemp.
The rags must be cut and cleaned, boiled, and beaten before they can be used by the paper mill. Who invented paper and papermaking? In the chemical method, known as the Kraft process from the German word for "strength," because it produces strong paper , plant materials are boiled up in strong alkalis such as sodium sulfide or sodium hydroxide to produce fibers. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. It's probably no exaggeration to say that paper is the world's favorite material. Paper companies insist that they plant as many new trees as they cut down. Coating adds chemicals or pigments to the paper's surface, supplementing the sizings and fillers from earlier in the process. Here's the basic idea: you take a plant, bash it about to release the fibers, and mix it with water to get a soggy suspension of fibers called pulp or stock. The pulp is filtered to remove foreign objects. The cost of such clean-up efforts is passed on to the consumer. The chips dissolve into pulp in the solution. Calenders: The rollers at the very end smooth the paper so it's of completely uniform thickness. Once the pulp has been prepared, it's turned into paper by an enormous roller machine. Straw, bamboo, and esparto grass are other materials used to produce fibers, some of which, due to their shape and lack of flexibility, yielded a weaker paper but one with even texture, softness, elasticity, good opacity, and bulk. The paper is then pressed further and fully dried, looping again and again around a series of rollers, before getting its final, very smooth pressing by large, heavy, steel rollers called calenders.
The pulp is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction devices below the belt drain off water.
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